Tag Archives: ethnicity

List of 371 #Nigerian Ethnic Groups


http://allafrica.com/stories/201705110011.html

1 Abayon -Cross River

2 Abua (Odual) -Rivers

3 Achipa (Achipawa) -Kebbi

4 Adim -Cross River

5 Adun -Cross River

6 Affade -Yobe

7 Afizere -Plateau

8 Afo -Plateau

9 Agbo -Cross River

10 Akaju-Ndem (Akajuk) -Cross River

11 Akweya-Yachi -Benue

12 Alago (Arago) -Piateau

13 Amo -Plateau

14 Anaguta -Plateau

15 Anang -Akwa lbom

16 Andoni -Akwa lbom, Rivers

17 Angas -Bauchi, Jigawa, Plateau

18 Ankwei -Plateau

19 Anyima -Cross River

20 Attakar (ataka) -Kaduna

21 Auyoka (Auyokawa) -Jigawa

22 Awori -Lagos, Ogun

23 Ayu -Kaduna

24 Babur -Adamawa, Bomo, Taraba, Yobe

25 Bachama -Adamawa

26 Bachere -Cross River

27 Bada -Plateau

28 Bade -Yobe

29 Bahumono -Cross River

30 Bakulung -Taraba

31 Bali -Taraba

32 Bambora (Bambarawa) -Bauchi

33 Bambuko -Taraba

34 Banda (Bandawa) -Taraba

35 Banka (Bankalawa) -Bauchi

36 Banso (Panso) -Adamawa

37 Bara (Barawa) -Bauchi

38 Barke -Bauchi

39 Baruba (Barba) -Niger

40 Bashiri (Bashirawa) -Plateau

41 Bassa -Kaduna, Kogi, Niger, Plateau

42 Batta -Adamawa

43 Baushi -Niger

44 Baya -Adamawa

45 Bekwarra -Cross River

46 Bele (Buli, Belewa) -Bauchi

47 Betso (Bete) -Taraba

48 Bette -Cross River

49 Bilei -Adamawa

50 Bille -Adamawa

51 Bina (Binawa) -Kaduna

52 Bini -Edo

53 Birom -Plateau

54 Bobua -Taraba

55 Boki (Nki) -Cross River

56 Bkkos -Plateau

57 Boko (Bussawa, Bargawa) -Niger

58 Bole (Bolewa) -Bauchi, Yobe

59 Botlere -Adamawa

60 Boma (Bomawa, Burmano) -Bauchi

61 Bomboro -Bauchi

62 Buduma -Borno, Niger

63 Buji -Plateau

64 Buli -Bauchi

65 Bunu -Kogi

66 Bura -Adamawa

67 Burak -Bauchi

68 Burma (Burmawa) -Plateau

69 Buru -Yobe

70 Buta (Butawa) -Bauchi

71 Bwall -Plateau

72 Bwatiye -Adamawa

73 Bwazza -Adamawa

74 Challa -Plateau

75 Chama (Chamawa Fitilai) -Bauchi

76 Chamba -Taraba

77 Chamo -Bauchi

78 Chibok (Chibbak) -Yobe

79 Chinine -Borno

80 Chip -Plateau

81 Chokobo -Plateau

82 Chukkol -Taraba

83 Daba -Adamawa

84 Dadiya -Bauchi

85 Daka -Adamawa

86 Dakarkari -Niger, Kebbi

87 Danda (Dandawa) -Kebbi

88 Dangsa -Taraba

89 Daza (Dere, Derewa) -Bauchi

90 Degema -Rivers

91 Deno (Denawa) -Bauchi

92 Dghwede -Bomo

93 Diba -Taraba

94 Doemak (Dumuk) -Plateau

95 Ouguri -Bauchi

96 Duka (Dukawa) -Kebbi

97 Duma (Dumawa) -Bauchi

98 Ebana (Ebani) -Rivers

99 Ebirra (lgbirra) -Edo, Kogi, Ondo

100 Ebu -Edo, Kogi

101 Efik -Cross River

102 Egbema -Rivers

103 Egede (lgedde) -Benue

104 Eggon -Plateau

105 Egun (Gu) -Lagos,Ogun

106 Ejagham -Cross River

107 Ekajuk -Cross River

108 Eket -Akwa Ibom

109 Ekoi -Cross River

110 Engenni (Ngene) -Rivers

111 Epie -Rivers

112 Esan (Ishan) -Edo

113 Etche -Rivers

114 Etolu (Etilo) -Benue

115 Etsako -Edo

116 Etung -Cross River

117 Etuno -Edo

118 Palli -Adamawa

119 Pulani (Pulbe) -Bauchi, Borno, Jigawa , Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi , Niger, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, etc.

120 Fyam (Fyem) -Plateau

121 Fyer(Fer) -Plateau

122 Ga’anda -Adamawa

123 Gade -Niger

124 Galambi -Bauchi

125 Gamergu-Mulgwa -Borno

126 Qanawuri -Plateau

127 Gavako -Borno

128 Gbedde -Kogi

129 Gengle -Taraba

130 Geji -Bauchi

131 Gera (Gere, Gerawa) -Bauchi

132 Geruma (Gerumawa) -Plateau

133 Geruma (Gerumawa) -Bauchi

134 Gingwak -Bauchi

135 Gira -Adamawa

136 Gizigz -Adamawa

137 Goernai -Plateau

138 Gokana (Kana) -Rivers

139 Gombi -Adamawa

140 Gornun (Gmun) -Taraba

141 Gonia -Taraba

142 Gubi (Gubawa) -Bauchi

143 Gude -Adamawa

144 Gudu -Adamawa

145 Gure -Kaduna

146 Gurmana -Niger

147 Gururntum -Bauchi

148 Gusu -Plateau

149 Gwa (Gurawa) -Adamawa

150 Gwamba Adamawa

151 Gwandara -Kaduna, Niger, Plateau

152 Gwari (Gbari) -Kaduna, Niger, Abuja, Plateau

153 Gwom -Taraba

154 Gwoza (Waha) -Borno

155 Gyem -Bauchi

156 Hausa: -Bauchi, Borno, Jigawa, Kaduna,Kano, Kastina, Kebbi, Niger,Taraba, Sokoto, Zamfara etc

157 Higi (Hig) -Borno, Adamawa

158 Holma -Adamawa

159 Hona -Adamawa

160 Ibeno -Akwa lbom

161 Ibibio -Akwa lbom

162 Ichen -Adamawa

163 Idoma -Benue, Taraba

164 Igalla -Kogi

165 lgbo: -Abia, Anambra, Benue, Delta, Ebonyi,Enugu, Imo, Rivers

166 ljumu -Kogi

167 Ikorn -Cross River

168 Irigwe -Plateau

169 Isoko -Delta

170 lsekiri (Itsekiri) -Delta

171 lyala (lyalla) -Cross River

172 lzondjo -Bayelsa, Delta, Ondo, Rivers

173 Jaba -Kaduna

174 Jahuna (Jahunawa) -Taraba

175 Jaku -Bauchi

176 Jara (Jaar Jarawa Jarawa-Dutse) -Bauchi

177 Jere (Jare, Jera, Jera, Jerawa) -Bauchi, Plateau

178 Jero -Taraba

179 Jibu -Adamawa

180 Jidda-Abu -Plateau

181 Jimbin (Jimbinawa) -Bauchi

182 Jirai -Adamawa

183 Jonjo (Jenjo) -Taraba

184 Jukun -Bauchi, Benue,Taraba, Plateau

185 Kaba(Kabawa) -Taraba

186 Kadara -Taraba

187 Kafanchan -Kaduna

188 Kagoro -Kaduna

189 Kaje (Kache) -Kaduna

190 Kajuru (Kajurawa) -Kaduna

191 Kaka -Adamawa

192 Kamaku (Karnukawa) -Kaduna, Kebbi, Niger

193 Kambari -Kebbi, Niger

194 Kambu -Adamawa

195 Kamo -Bauchi

196 Kanakuru (Dera) -Adamawa, Borno

197 Kanembu -Borno

198 Kanikon -Kaduna

199 Kantana -Plateau

200 Kanuri -Kaduna, Adamawa, Borno, Kano,Niger, Jigawa, Plateau, Taraba, Yobe

201 Karekare (Karaikarai) -Bauchi, Yobe

202 Karimjo -Taraba

203 Kariya -Bauchi

204 Katab (Kataf) -Kaduna

205 Kenern (Koenoem) -Plateau

206 Kenton -Taraba

207 Kiballo (Kiwollo) -Kaduna

208 Kilba -Adamawa

209 Kirfi (Kirfawa) -Bauchi

210 Koma -Taraba

211 Kona -Taraba

212 Koro (Kwaro) -Kaduna, Niger

213 Kubi (Kubawa) -Bauchi

214 Kudachano (Kudawa) -Bauchi

215 Kugama -Taraba

216 Kulere (Kaler) -Plateau

217 Kunini -Taraba

218 Kurama -Jigawa, Kaduna, Niger, Plateau

219 Kurdul -Adamawa

220 Kushi -Bauchi

221 Kuteb -Taraba

222 Kutin -Taraba

223 Kwalla -Plateau

224 Kwami (Kwom) -Bauchi

225 Kwanchi -Taraba

226 Kwanka (Kwankwa) -Bauchi, Plateau

227 Kwaro -Plateau

228 Kwato -Plateau

229 Kyenga (Kengawa) -Sokoto

230 Laaru (Larawa) -Niger

231 Lakka -Adamawa

232 Lala -Adamawa

233 Lama -Taraba

234 Lamja -Taraba

235 Lau -Taraba

236 Ubbo -Adamawa

237 Limono -Bauchi, Plateau

238 Lopa (Lupa, Lopawa) -Niger

239 Longuda (Lunguda) -Adamawa, Bauchi

240 Mabo -Plateau

241 Mada -Kaduna, Plateau

242 Mama -Plateau

243 Mambilla -Adamawa

244 Manchok -Kaduna

245 Mandara (Wandala) -Borno

246 Manga (Mangawa) -Yobe

247 Margi (Marghi) -Adamawa, Borno

248 Matakarn -Adamawa

249 Mbembe -Cross River, Enugu

250 Mbol -Adamawa

251 Mbube -Cross River

252 Mbula -Adamawa

253 Mbum -Taraba

254 Memyang (Meryan) -Plateau

255 Miango -Plateau

256 Miligili (Migili) -Plateau

257 Miya (Miyawa) -Bauchi

258 Mobber -Borno

259 Montol -Plateau

260 Moruwa (Moro’a, Morwa) -Kaduna

261 Muchaila -Adamawa

262 Mumuye -Taraba

263 Mundang -Adamawa

264 Munga (Mupang) -Plateau

265 Mushere -Plateau

266 Mwahavul (Mwaghavul) -Plateau

267 Ndoro -Taraba

268 Ngamo -Bauchi, Yobe

269 Ngizim -Yobe

270 Ngweshe (Ndhang.Ngoshe-Ndhang) -Adamawa, Borno

271 Ningi (Ningawa) -Bauchi

272 Ninzam (Ninzo) -Kaduna, Plateau

273 Njayi -Adamawa

274 Nkim -Cross River

275 Nkum -Cross River

276 Nokere (Nakere) -Plateau

277 Nunku -Kaduna, Plateau

278 Nupe -Niger

279 Nyandang -Taraba

280 Ododop Cross River

281 Ogori -Kwara

282 Okobo (Okkobor) -Akwa lbom

283 Okpamheri -Edo

284 Olulumo -Cross River

285 Oron -Akwa lbom

286 Owan -Edo

287 Owe -Kwara

288 Oworo -Kwara

289 Pa’a (Pa’awa Afawa) -Bauchi

290 Pai -Plateau

291 Panyam -Taraba

292 Pero -Bauchi

293 Pire -Adamawa

294 Pkanzom -Taraba

295 Poll -Taraba

296 Polchi Habe -Bauchi

297 Pongo (Pongu) -Niger

298 Potopo -Taraba

299 Pyapun (Piapung) -Plateau

300 Qua -Cross River

301 Rebina (Rebinawa) -Bauchi

302 Reshe -Kebbi, Niger

303 Rindire (Rendre) -Plateau

304 Rishuwa -Kaduna

305 Ron -Plateau

306 Rubu -Niger

307 Rukuba -Plateau

308 Rumada -Kaduna

309 Rumaya -Kaduna

310 Sakbe -Taraba

311 Sanga -Bauchi

312 Sate -Taraba

313 Saya (Sayawa Za’ar) -Bauchi

314 Segidi (Sigidawa) -Bauchi

315 Shanga (Shangawa) -Sokoto

316 Shangawa (Shangau) -Plateau

317 Shan-Shan -Plateau

318 Shira (Shirawa) -Kano

319 Shomo -Taraba

320 Shuwa -Adamawa, Borno

321 Sikdi -Plateau

322 Siri (Sirawa) -Bauchi

323 Srubu (Surubu) -Kaduna

324 Sukur -Adamawa

325 Sura -Plateau

326 Tangale -Bauchi

327 Tarok -Plateau, Taraba

328 Teme -Adamawa

329 Tera (Terawa) -Bauchi, Bomo

330 Teshena (Teshenawa) -Kano

331 Tigon -Adamawa

332 Tikar -Taraba

333 Tiv -Benue, Plateau, Taraba and Nasarawa

334 Tula -Bauchi

335 Tur -Adamawa

336 Ufia -Benue

337 Ukelle -Cross River

338 Ukwani (Kwale) -Delta

339 Uncinda -Kaduna, Kebbi, Niger, Sokoto

340 Uneme (Ineme) -Edo

341 Ura (Ula) -Niger

342 Urhobo -Delta

343 Utonkong -Benue

344 Uyanga -Cross River

345 Vemgo -Adamawa

346 Verre -Adamawa

347 Vommi -Taraba

348 Wagga -Adamawa

349 Waja -Bauchi

350 Waka -Taraba

351 Warja (Warja) -Jigawa

352 Warji -Bauchi

353 Wula -Adamawa

354 Wurbo -Adamawa

355 Wurkun -Taraba

356 Yache -Cross River

357 Yagba -Kwara

358 Yakurr (Yako) -Cross River

359 Yalla -Benue

360 Yandang -Taraba

361 Yergan (Yergum) -Plateau

362 Yoruba -(Kwara, Lagos, Ogun, Ondo, Oyo, Osun, Ekiti, Kogi)

363 Yott -Taraba

364 Yumu -Niger

365 Yungur -Adamawa

366 Yuom -Plateau

367 Zabara -Niger

368 Zaranda -Bauchi

369 Zarma (Zarmawa) -Kebbi

370 Zayam (Zeam) -Bauchi

371 Zul (Zulawa) -Bauchi

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#Nigeria’s Latest Ethnic Controversy


As usual in Nigeria there is a massive controversy brewing over the application of the country’s constitutional “federal character” provision for recruitment into a government agency. The State Security Service (SSS) is Nigeria’s equivalent of America’s FBI, the British MI5, or Israel’s Shin Bet.

Recruitment statistics for the latest batch of recruits into the SSS shows that new recruits from northern Nigeria overwhelmingly outnumbered those from the south. Katsina State (the home state of Nigeria’s President Muhammadu Buhari and the the Director-General of the SSS Lawal Daura) had more recruits that any other state in the country. In a country as sensitive to allegations of nepositism, and ethnic, religious, or geographic favouritism as Nigeria, lopsided recruitment into a national agency is bound to cause trouble. Especially if recruitment shows that people from the same state as the president as the head of the SSS are being favoured.

 

 

The SSS commissioned 479 new recruits in March 2017. Of that 479 51 were from Katsina State alone, 165 are from the North-west, 100 from the North-east 100, and 71 from the North-Central zones of Nigeria. This means that over 70% of the latest SSS recruits were from northern Nigeria.

The table below summarized the total number of recruits from each state:

 

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http://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/headlines/229803-exclusive-sss-in-recruitment-scandal-katsina-51-akwa-ibom-5-kano-25-lagos-7-see-full-list.html

How #Tanzania Avoided Tribalism


#Nigerian Politics: Church, State, and Mosque


http://www.economist.com/news/middle-east-and-africa/21636771-politics-and-religion-make-combustible-electoral-mixture-church-state-and

The Myth of Ethnicity in Africa


You are Not Hausa, Igbo or Yoruba

Most of you reading this identify yourselves as members of an ethnic group that your great-grandparents did not. It is very unlikely that your great-grandparents regarded themselves as Yoruba, Igbo, Hausa, Efik, Ogoni, Tiv, Kanuri or [insert name of applicable ethnic group from the list of 250+] in the manner than you do today. When Nigerians engage each other in bitter ethnic battle, the extent to which the effects of colonialism still holds them captive becomes apparent.

“COLO MENTALITY”

Until the 19th and 20th centuries, many African ‘races’, ‘tribes’, or ethnicities such as the Yoruba, Shona, Igbo, Hutu, Tutsi and Ogoni did not exist in their modern form. Many African ethnic groups are fictional social constructs created by the departed colonial masters. Colonial authorities did not just create the nation called Nigeria, they also “created” many of the ethnic groups inside its borders.

The existence of Igbos, Yorubas, Ogonis, Hausas etc as centuries old, ancient, stable, ethnic groups, each with their own homogeneous culture and unambiguous identity, is nothing but a myth. Nigeria’s governments have also bought this colonial lie of ethnicity hook, line, and sinker. Today ethnic riots often break out over “ethnic groups”, “indigenes”, and “settlers” that did not exist before 1900. Prior to colonialism, there were numerous groups of people with cultural and linguistic links who later became Ogoni, Yoruba, Igbo etc. However 200 years ago, people from Ogbomosho and Abeokuta did not regard themselves as part of the same ethnic group. Neither did people from Owerri and Onitsha.

THE “YORUBA NATION”

People who currently self identify as “Yoruba” did not do so until around approximately 110-115 years ago. The Yoruba phrase originally applied only to the group of people in modern day Oyo. Even the famed Oyo Empire was not a Yoruba empire as such. It incorporated areas of modern day locations that are regarded as Nupe-land or Ebira-land (as well as modern day Benin Republic). Even Transatlantic slaves taken from (modern day) Yorubaland and emancipated by the British in the early 19th century did not identify themselves as Yoruba.

Pan Yoruba consciousness grew in the early 1900s when trading, migration, religious conversion and education drew various related groups in modern day south-western Nigeria into contact with each other. Neighbouring groups who are today regarded as Yoruba (such as Ekiti, Ondo, Ilesha, Ijebu etc) subsequently adopted Yoruba identity. These groups thus acquired collective identity and designation under a common name.

The pre-independence nationalist agitation for independence, and Nnamdi Azikiwe’s pre-eminence in the Igbo State Union and National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons (NCNC) amplified pan-Yoruba identity. This encouraged the creation of a pan-Yoruba movement to compete against other ethnic groups (especially Igbos). This phenomenon later manifested itself in political form via the NCNC/Action Group political party rivalry.

ETHNICITY AND BORDERS

Early European arrivals in Africa had a tendency to observe their African hosts through European tinted binoculars, that automatically correlated geographic location with language, identity and race (as is the case in Europe). Colonial authorities’ use of maps and geography assigned unique ethnic or tribal identities to Africans living within a certain area – where no such identities had existed before.

 

The myth of large African ethnic groups compartmentalised within neat geographic boundaries, was reinforced by colonial bureaucracy’s arbitrary use of borders and maps to demarcate and classify where one ethnic group’s ‘turf’ ended, and another group’s began. Remember the British division of Nigeria into three regions? Is it not odd that such geographic division just happened to coincide with the notion of a country dominated by ‘three major ethnic groups’ (whose geographical boundaries just happened to coincide with the intra-country regional borders created by the British?).

THE BIBLE AND RELIGION

Colonialism was not the exclusive vehicle for the creation of ethnic identity. Religious missionaries also unwittingly contributed. Lost in a breath-taking matrix of African languages, and eager to communicate with, and spread the word of the Judeo-Christian God to newly ‘discovered’ populations, Christian missionaries were prone to compiling ‘standardised’ versions of several local dialects they encountered. They thereby transformed these standardised versions into ‘authorized’ or ‘official’ versions of the other/related languages spoken nearby. For example, Christian missionaries translated the bible into the Oyo/Egba dialects and designated the dialect of the Oyo kingdom as ‘standard Yoruba’. These translations and their teaching in schools also perpetuated pan-Yoruba identity. The same phenomenon was observed among the Igbos with missionaries’ translation of a “Union Igbo” bible.

By compiling and translating new grammars from one among a diversity of variant local dialects (usually that spoken around the mission station), missionaries frequently transformed a local dialect they encountered into the ‘authoritative’ version of the language of a whole ‘tribe’ and propagated it through their schools.

Lazy European anthropology also played its part. Anthropological observers would often spend time researching an isolated group, then issue ‘authoritative’ academic treatises identifying that group’s customs and culture as emblematic of a much larger group of people in that area. This is turn encouraged the lopsided recording and standardisation of local histories and customs. The practices of a group near a mission station or anthropologist’s base, would often be incorrectly propagated as being the customs of an entire region or ethnic group.

PEOPLE OF THE BOOK

Since religious conversion often came with the added bonus of literacy attached, various sub-groups had an added impetus to attach themselves to, and identify with, the modified ethnic identities that were being created by the Europeans in their midst.

Education, literacy and the recording of religious texts into local languages added to this pattern of ‘standardised’ grammar and language. Since the “standard Yoruba” and “Union Igbo” came wrapped with the enticing benefits of education and literacy, it became first a social, then an ethno-linguistic group. The demarcation of Nigeria into federal units also accorded political benefits and relevance to those who ‘belonged’ to this Yoruba group (and encouraged such belonging).

A modern example of constructed ethnic identity are the Ogoni. The people who today identify as Ogoni originally spoke what one academic described as a ‘cluster’ of languages (such as Khana, Gokana and Eleme), one of which could be further sub-divided into different dialects. As recently as the 1930s, there was no great pan-Ogoni consciousness. The efforts of colonial and post-independence governments to create states for minority ethnicities, encouraged pan Ogoni nationalism and identity. This was motivated by a desire to form a new state separate from the Eastern Region, which minorities wanted to leave in order to rid themselves of Igbo domination.

So before the next time you suggest breaking up Nigeria into its “component ethnic nations”, or express frustration at your inability to understand or get along with your “Aboki”, “Ngbati”, or “Nyamiri” neighbour, or your “Mai Guard”, consider that you are playing a game created by a colonial referee that has long since left the playing field…

Max Siollun

https://twitter.com/maxsiollun

https://maxsiollun.wordpress.com/

Is Nigeria’s Conflict Religious or Political?


 

Violence in Plateau State between Muslim Fulani and Christian Birom. Is is about religion, ethnicity or the legal status of the “settler” and “indigene” dichotomy in Nigeria?

 

http://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/insidestory/2012/07/201272683818746862.html

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cQDRK8sg228