List of 371 #Nigerian Ethnic Groups


http://allafrica.com/stories/201705110011.html

1 Abayon -Cross River

2 Abua (Odual) -Rivers

3 Achipa (Achipawa) -Kebbi

4 Adim -Cross River

5 Adun -Cross River

6 Affade -Yobe

7 Afizere -Plateau

8 Afo -Plateau

9 Agbo -Cross River

10 Akaju-Ndem (Akajuk) -Cross River

11 Akweya-Yachi -Benue

12 Alago (Arago) -Piateau

13 Amo -Plateau

14 Anaguta -Plateau

15 Anang -Akwa lbom

16 Andoni -Akwa lbom, Rivers

17 Angas -Bauchi, Jigawa, Plateau

18 Ankwei -Plateau

19 Anyima -Cross River

20 Attakar (ataka) -Kaduna

21 Auyoka (Auyokawa) -Jigawa

22 Awori -Lagos, Ogun

23 Ayu -Kaduna

24 Babur -Adamawa, Bomo, Taraba, Yobe

25 Bachama -Adamawa

26 Bachere -Cross River

27 Bada -Plateau

28 Bade -Yobe

29 Bahumono -Cross River

30 Bakulung -Taraba

31 Bali -Taraba

32 Bambora (Bambarawa) -Bauchi

33 Bambuko -Taraba

34 Banda (Bandawa) -Taraba

35 Banka (Bankalawa) -Bauchi

36 Banso (Panso) -Adamawa

37 Bara (Barawa) -Bauchi

38 Barke -Bauchi

39 Baruba (Barba) -Niger

40 Bashiri (Bashirawa) -Plateau

41 Bassa -Kaduna, Kogi, Niger, Plateau

42 Batta -Adamawa

43 Baushi -Niger

44 Baya -Adamawa

45 Bekwarra -Cross River

46 Bele (Buli, Belewa) -Bauchi

47 Betso (Bete) -Taraba

48 Bette -Cross River

49 Bilei -Adamawa

50 Bille -Adamawa

51 Bina (Binawa) -Kaduna

52 Bini -Edo

53 Birom -Plateau

54 Bobua -Taraba

55 Boki (Nki) -Cross River

56 Bkkos -Plateau

57 Boko (Bussawa, Bargawa) -Niger

58 Bole (Bolewa) -Bauchi, Yobe

59 Botlere -Adamawa

60 Boma (Bomawa, Burmano) -Bauchi

61 Bomboro -Bauchi

62 Buduma -Borno, Niger

63 Buji -Plateau

64 Buli -Bauchi

65 Bunu -Kogi

66 Bura -Adamawa

67 Burak -Bauchi

68 Burma (Burmawa) -Plateau

69 Buru -Yobe

70 Buta (Butawa) -Bauchi

71 Bwall -Plateau

72 Bwatiye -Adamawa

73 Bwazza -Adamawa

74 Challa -Plateau

75 Chama (Chamawa Fitilai) -Bauchi

76 Chamba -Taraba

77 Chamo -Bauchi

78 Chibok (Chibbak) -Yobe

79 Chinine -Borno

80 Chip -Plateau

81 Chokobo -Plateau

82 Chukkol -Taraba

83 Daba -Adamawa

84 Dadiya -Bauchi

85 Daka -Adamawa

86 Dakarkari -Niger, Kebbi

87 Danda (Dandawa) -Kebbi

88 Dangsa -Taraba

89 Daza (Dere, Derewa) -Bauchi

90 Degema -Rivers

91 Deno (Denawa) -Bauchi

92 Dghwede -Bomo

93 Diba -Taraba

94 Doemak (Dumuk) -Plateau

95 Ouguri -Bauchi

96 Duka (Dukawa) -Kebbi

97 Duma (Dumawa) -Bauchi

98 Ebana (Ebani) -Rivers

99 Ebirra (lgbirra) -Edo, Kogi, Ondo

100 Ebu -Edo, Kogi

101 Efik -Cross River

102 Egbema -Rivers

103 Egede (lgedde) -Benue

104 Eggon -Plateau

105 Egun (Gu) -Lagos,Ogun

106 Ejagham -Cross River

107 Ekajuk -Cross River

108 Eket -Akwa Ibom

109 Ekoi -Cross River

110 Engenni (Ngene) -Rivers

111 Epie -Rivers

112 Esan (Ishan) -Edo

113 Etche -Rivers

114 Etolu (Etilo) -Benue

115 Etsako -Edo

116 Etung -Cross River

117 Etuno -Edo

118 Palli -Adamawa

119 Pulani (Pulbe) -Bauchi, Borno, Jigawa , Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi , Niger, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, etc.

120 Fyam (Fyem) -Plateau

121 Fyer(Fer) -Plateau

122 Ga’anda -Adamawa

123 Gade -Niger

124 Galambi -Bauchi

125 Gamergu-Mulgwa -Borno

126 Qanawuri -Plateau

127 Gavako -Borno

128 Gbedde -Kogi

129 Gengle -Taraba

130 Geji -Bauchi

131 Gera (Gere, Gerawa) -Bauchi

132 Geruma (Gerumawa) -Plateau

133 Geruma (Gerumawa) -Bauchi

134 Gingwak -Bauchi

135 Gira -Adamawa

136 Gizigz -Adamawa

137 Goernai -Plateau

138 Gokana (Kana) -Rivers

139 Gombi -Adamawa

140 Gornun (Gmun) -Taraba

141 Gonia -Taraba

142 Gubi (Gubawa) -Bauchi

143 Gude -Adamawa

144 Gudu -Adamawa

145 Gure -Kaduna

146 Gurmana -Niger

147 Gururntum -Bauchi

148 Gusu -Plateau

149 Gwa (Gurawa) -Adamawa

150 Gwamba Adamawa

151 Gwandara -Kaduna, Niger, Plateau

152 Gwari (Gbari) -Kaduna, Niger, Abuja, Plateau

153 Gwom -Taraba

154 Gwoza (Waha) -Borno

155 Gyem -Bauchi

156 Hausa: -Bauchi, Borno, Jigawa, Kaduna,Kano, Kastina, Kebbi, Niger,Taraba, Sokoto, Zamfara etc

157 Higi (Hig) -Borno, Adamawa

158 Holma -Adamawa

159 Hona -Adamawa

160 Ibeno -Akwa lbom

161 Ibibio -Akwa lbom

162 Ichen -Adamawa

163 Idoma -Benue, Taraba

164 Igalla -Kogi

165 lgbo: -Abia, Anambra, Benue, Delta, Ebonyi,Enugu, Imo, Rivers

166 ljumu -Kogi

167 Ikorn -Cross River

168 Irigwe -Plateau

169 Isoko -Delta

170 lsekiri (Itsekiri) -Delta

171 lyala (lyalla) -Cross River

172 lzondjo -Bayelsa, Delta, Ondo, Rivers

173 Jaba -Kaduna

174 Jahuna (Jahunawa) -Taraba

175 Jaku -Bauchi

176 Jara (Jaar Jarawa Jarawa-Dutse) -Bauchi

177 Jere (Jare, Jera, Jera, Jerawa) -Bauchi, Plateau

178 Jero -Taraba

179 Jibu -Adamawa

180 Jidda-Abu -Plateau

181 Jimbin (Jimbinawa) -Bauchi

182 Jirai -Adamawa

183 Jonjo (Jenjo) -Taraba

184 Jukun -Bauchi, Benue,Taraba, Plateau

185 Kaba(Kabawa) -Taraba

186 Kadara -Taraba

187 Kafanchan -Kaduna

188 Kagoro -Kaduna

189 Kaje (Kache) -Kaduna

190 Kajuru (Kajurawa) -Kaduna

191 Kaka -Adamawa

192 Kamaku (Karnukawa) -Kaduna, Kebbi, Niger

193 Kambari -Kebbi, Niger

194 Kambu -Adamawa

195 Kamo -Bauchi

196 Kanakuru (Dera) -Adamawa, Borno

197 Kanembu -Borno

198 Kanikon -Kaduna

199 Kantana -Plateau

200 Kanuri -Kaduna, Adamawa, Borno, Kano,Niger, Jigawa, Plateau, Taraba, Yobe

201 Karekare (Karaikarai) -Bauchi, Yobe

202 Karimjo -Taraba

203 Kariya -Bauchi

204 Katab (Kataf) -Kaduna

205 Kenern (Koenoem) -Plateau

206 Kenton -Taraba

207 Kiballo (Kiwollo) -Kaduna

208 Kilba -Adamawa

209 Kirfi (Kirfawa) -Bauchi

210 Koma -Taraba

211 Kona -Taraba

212 Koro (Kwaro) -Kaduna, Niger

213 Kubi (Kubawa) -Bauchi

214 Kudachano (Kudawa) -Bauchi

215 Kugama -Taraba

216 Kulere (Kaler) -Plateau

217 Kunini -Taraba

218 Kurama -Jigawa, Kaduna, Niger, Plateau

219 Kurdul -Adamawa

220 Kushi -Bauchi

221 Kuteb -Taraba

222 Kutin -Taraba

223 Kwalla -Plateau

224 Kwami (Kwom) -Bauchi

225 Kwanchi -Taraba

226 Kwanka (Kwankwa) -Bauchi, Plateau

227 Kwaro -Plateau

228 Kwato -Plateau

229 Kyenga (Kengawa) -Sokoto

230 Laaru (Larawa) -Niger

231 Lakka -Adamawa

232 Lala -Adamawa

233 Lama -Taraba

234 Lamja -Taraba

235 Lau -Taraba

236 Ubbo -Adamawa

237 Limono -Bauchi, Plateau

238 Lopa (Lupa, Lopawa) -Niger

239 Longuda (Lunguda) -Adamawa, Bauchi

240 Mabo -Plateau

241 Mada -Kaduna, Plateau

242 Mama -Plateau

243 Mambilla -Adamawa

244 Manchok -Kaduna

245 Mandara (Wandala) -Borno

246 Manga (Mangawa) -Yobe

247 Margi (Marghi) -Adamawa, Borno

248 Matakarn -Adamawa

249 Mbembe -Cross River, Enugu

250 Mbol -Adamawa

251 Mbube -Cross River

252 Mbula -Adamawa

253 Mbum -Taraba

254 Memyang (Meryan) -Plateau

255 Miango -Plateau

256 Miligili (Migili) -Plateau

257 Miya (Miyawa) -Bauchi

258 Mobber -Borno

259 Montol -Plateau

260 Moruwa (Moro’a, Morwa) -Kaduna

261 Muchaila -Adamawa

262 Mumuye -Taraba

263 Mundang -Adamawa

264 Munga (Mupang) -Plateau

265 Mushere -Plateau

266 Mwahavul (Mwaghavul) -Plateau

267 Ndoro -Taraba

268 Ngamo -Bauchi, Yobe

269 Ngizim -Yobe

270 Ngweshe (Ndhang.Ngoshe-Ndhang) -Adamawa, Borno

271 Ningi (Ningawa) -Bauchi

272 Ninzam (Ninzo) -Kaduna, Plateau

273 Njayi -Adamawa

274 Nkim -Cross River

275 Nkum -Cross River

276 Nokere (Nakere) -Plateau

277 Nunku -Kaduna, Plateau

278 Nupe -Niger

279 Nyandang -Taraba

280 Ododop Cross River

281 Ogori -Kwara

282 Okobo (Okkobor) -Akwa lbom

283 Okpamheri -Edo

284 Olulumo -Cross River

285 Oron -Akwa lbom

286 Owan -Edo

287 Owe -Kwara

288 Oworo -Kwara

289 Pa’a (Pa’awa Afawa) -Bauchi

290 Pai -Plateau

291 Panyam -Taraba

292 Pero -Bauchi

293 Pire -Adamawa

294 Pkanzom -Taraba

295 Poll -Taraba

296 Polchi Habe -Bauchi

297 Pongo (Pongu) -Niger

298 Potopo -Taraba

299 Pyapun (Piapung) -Plateau

300 Qua -Cross River

301 Rebina (Rebinawa) -Bauchi

302 Reshe -Kebbi, Niger

303 Rindire (Rendre) -Plateau

304 Rishuwa -Kaduna

305 Ron -Plateau

306 Rubu -Niger

307 Rukuba -Plateau

308 Rumada -Kaduna

309 Rumaya -Kaduna

310 Sakbe -Taraba

311 Sanga -Bauchi

312 Sate -Taraba

313 Saya (Sayawa Za’ar) -Bauchi

314 Segidi (Sigidawa) -Bauchi

315 Shanga (Shangawa) -Sokoto

316 Shangawa (Shangau) -Plateau

317 Shan-Shan -Plateau

318 Shira (Shirawa) -Kano

319 Shomo -Taraba

320 Shuwa -Adamawa, Borno

321 Sikdi -Plateau

322 Siri (Sirawa) -Bauchi

323 Srubu (Surubu) -Kaduna

324 Sukur -Adamawa

325 Sura -Plateau

326 Tangale -Bauchi

327 Tarok -Plateau, Taraba

328 Teme -Adamawa

329 Tera (Terawa) -Bauchi, Bomo

330 Teshena (Teshenawa) -Kano

331 Tigon -Adamawa

332 Tikar -Taraba

333 Tiv -Benue, Plateau, Taraba and Nasarawa

334 Tula -Bauchi

335 Tur -Adamawa

336 Ufia -Benue

337 Ukelle -Cross River

338 Ukwani (Kwale) -Delta

339 Uncinda -Kaduna, Kebbi, Niger, Sokoto

340 Uneme (Ineme) -Edo

341 Ura (Ula) -Niger

342 Urhobo -Delta

343 Utonkong -Benue

344 Uyanga -Cross River

345 Vemgo -Adamawa

346 Verre -Adamawa

347 Vommi -Taraba

348 Wagga -Adamawa

349 Waja -Bauchi

350 Waka -Taraba

351 Warja (Warja) -Jigawa

352 Warji -Bauchi

353 Wula -Adamawa

354 Wurbo -Adamawa

355 Wurkun -Taraba

356 Yache -Cross River

357 Yagba -Kwara

358 Yakurr (Yako) -Cross River

359 Yalla -Benue

360 Yandang -Taraba

361 Yergan (Yergum) -Plateau

362 Yoruba -(Kwara, Lagos, Ogun, Ondo, Oyo, Osun, Ekiti, Kogi)

363 Yott -Taraba

364 Yumu -Niger

365 Yungur -Adamawa

366 Yuom -Plateau

367 Zabara -Niger

368 Zaranda -Bauchi

369 Zarma (Zarmawa) -Kebbi

370 Zayam (Zeam) -Bauchi

371 Zul (Zulawa) -Bauchi

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“Operation Flintock” – #USA Military Training Programme for #African Armies


#Nigeria’s Latest Ethnic Controversy


As usual in Nigeria there is a massive controversy brewing over the application of the country’s constitutional “federal character” provision for recruitment into a government agency. The State Security Service (SSS) is Nigeria’s equivalent of America’s FBI, the British MI5, or Israel’s Shin Bet.

Recruitment statistics for the latest batch of recruits into the SSS shows that new recruits from northern Nigeria overwhelmingly outnumbered those from the south. Katsina State (the home state of Nigeria’s President Muhammadu Buhari and the the Director-General of the SSS Lawal Daura) had more recruits that any other state in the country. In a country as sensitive to allegations of nepositism, and ethnic, religious, or geographic favouritism as Nigeria, lopsided recruitment into a national agency is bound to cause trouble. Especially if recruitment shows that people from the same state as the president as the head of the SSS are being favoured.

 

 

The SSS commissioned 479 new recruits in March 2017. Of that 479 51 were from Katsina State alone, 165 are from the North-west, 100 from the North-east 100, and 71 from the North-Central zones of Nigeria. This means that over 70% of the latest SSS recruits were from northern Nigeria.

The table below summarized the total number of recruits from each state:

 

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http://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/headlines/229803-exclusive-sss-in-recruitment-scandal-katsina-51-akwa-ibom-5-kano-25-lagos-7-see-full-list.html

Behind the #USA Arms Sale to #Nigeria


https://soundcloud.com/search?q=us%20weapons%20sale%20nigeria

The inside story on the recent American sale of military aircraft to Nigeria for Nigeria’s ongoing war against Boko Haram. It seems that the sale is a gesture of goodwill (approved by the Obama administration, but being implemented by his successor Donald Trump). It seems to be “expensive toys” that probably should not be prioritised at this stage of the Boko Haram conflict.

http://www.nbcnews.com/news/world/trump-sell-high-tech-planes-nigeria-fight-boko-haram-n744946

 

Philip Efiong’s Book on #Biafra -v- #Nigeria Civil War


9781928211808_2
Philip Efiong’s book on the Biafra -v- Nigeria civil war has been republished. His son Philip Jr alerted me of this. The first edition of the book was published over a decade ago. I have read the book myself and it is a valuable contribution to the civil war literature. Further details about the book are at the links above and you can buy it from Amazon.

 

How #Tanzania Avoided Tribalism


The Ongoing Fight Against #BokoHaram – Live Now #CSISLIVE


Center for Strategic & International Studies

Join us for a discussion with Nnamdi Obasi and Hans De Marie Heungoup of the International Crisis Group, authors of two recent ICG publications on the state of security and humanitarian responses to conflict in the Lake Chad basin. Watchmen of Lake Chad: Vigilante Groups Fighting Boko Haram traces the origins and evolution of vigilante groups in Nigeria and Cameroon and examines their role in the fight against the Boko Haram insurgency. The Humanitarian Fallout from Cameroon’s Struggle Against Boko Haram considers the plight of refugees and IDPs in Cameroon. The research will serve as the basis for a broader discussion on the challenges confronting the region as the fight against Boko Haram continues.

https://www.csis.org/events/continuing-fight-against-boko-haram

Challenges of the Civilian Joint Task Force (CJTF) vigilante group:

  • CJTF membership is a status symbol. It empowers and gives authority to young men.
  • What to do with them after their service against Boko Haram. Will the CJTF be demobilised?
  • CJTF have a “sense of entitlement” and want the government to reward them by granting them scholarships to continue their education (many of them are young) or to employ them by incorporating them into state institutions.
  • CJTF’s existence is not abnormal in the Nigerian context. There are vigilante groups all over Nigeria: many of them ethnically based.
  • Anti Boko Haram vigilante groups exist in Nigeria and Cameroon. The Nigerian vigilantes (most of whom are aged 18-24) are younger than their Cameroon counterparts (most of whom are over 25 years old).

The Military and Civilians:

  • The military and CJTF have been accused of human rights abuses. Civilians claim they are caught in the middle between Boko Haram and the military. After Boko Haram attacks, soldiers descend on and raid, communities that have been attacked and indiscriminately arrest all young men on suspicion of being Boko Haram members.
  • This created a “push and pull” effect that both acted as a recruiting tool for Boko Haram, and pushed young men to join the CJTF as a means of making it clear that they have no allegiance to Boko Haram.
  • Military launched “Operation Safe Corridor” which offers amnesty and rehabilitation for repentant Boko Haram members who surrender. The programme is deeply unpopular with civilians who have suffered Boko Haram atrocities. Such civilians demand punitive justice against Boko Haram members and argue that addressing their grievances should be prioritised above rehabilitating Boko Haram members. They feel that people who commit atrocities should not be treated so gently.

Boko Haram Evolution:

  • Boko Haram offered socio-economic incentives to recruits such as money (up to 6 months salary), gifts of motorbikes, and offering wives. This latter category incentivised the kidnapping of women to give as “bride prizes” to Boko Haram members.
  • Some others join Boko Haram for ideological reasons (Jihad, support for Salafi ideology).
  • Boko Haram has factionalised into two groups: (a) one group in southern Borno State (close to the Cameroon border) led by Abubakar Shekau; and (b) a second faction in northern Borno State led by Abu-Musab Al-Barnawai (son of Boko Haram’s original leader Mohammed Yusuf).
  • According to the Borno State governor Kashim Shettima, Boko Haram destroyed 30% of residential houses, and 700 municipal buildings (police stations, courts, council buildings etc) in Borno State.

 

Is Corruption in the #Nigerian DNA?


With corruption yet again making front page news in Nigeria, I thought it was an at time to resurrect an article I published on this website nearly 8 years ago. It asks whether corruption is a “Nigerian syndrome” and what can be done about it.

Nigeria is internationally famous for three things: oil, its Super Eagles football team, and its spectacular government corruption.  However, contrary to popular belief it is quite simply a myth that corruption is perpetrated mostly by the government.  Most Nigerians are paradoxically and simultaneously, accomplices, active participants, victims and agents provocateurs of corruption in their society.

LEGAL IMPEDIMENTS: Section 308 of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution

The first step to understanding corruption in Nigeria is the acknowledgment that corruption is the norm rather than the exception.  Corruption is part of the system and has even been inadvertently sanctioned by the Constitution.  Section 308 of the Constitution shields the President, Vice-President, Governors and Deputy Governors from civil or criminal proceedings, arrest and imprisonment during their term of office.  This Section was intended to prevent frivolous lawsuits from being brought against public officers which might impede their management of their official duties.  However in a country as notoriously corrupt as Nigeria, it has been a legal cloak for embezzlement, and has placed many public officers above the law.  The result has been that several Governors have been able to loot state treasuries at will with no fear of arrest or prosecution.

However, corruption is not the exclusive preserve of the government.  Although most Nigerians condemn corruption as a practice of the “Big Men” and government officials, most of the population are willing accomplices.  There is an inherent hypocrisy among Nigerians about corruption.  Most citizens acknowledge that corruption is an impediment to Nigeria’s economic development and reputation, yet the ordinary Nigerian’s unquenchable thirst for the acquisition of material wealth, possessions, fame and power fuels corruption by others.

Even those that disapprove of corruption by government officials freely admit that they would do the same if they were in government, and they simultaneously participate in practices that are inappropriate.  The fuel industry is an excellent illustrative example of how corruption and dishonesty flows from the top all the way down to the lower rungs of Nigerian society.  The oil industry is rightly or wrongly perceived as the epicentre of government corruption and abuse in Nigeria.  Is the government alone in its abuse of the oil industry?  During fuel strikes and shortages petrol stations have frequently been accused of surreptitiously hoarding fuel in order to deliberately amplify shortages and drive prices even higher.  In other words they exploit and deteriorate the misery of the already hyper-extended fuel consumer.

Malpractice is not limited to petrol station proprietors.  Black market street sellers of fuel in such circumstances are also distrusted by some motorists.  Motorists often accuse them of diluting the petrol they sell with other chemicals.  In the “food chain” of the oil industry, private citizens also dangerously “tap” oil from pipelines in order to sell on the black market.  We should avoid using benign words like “tap” and call the practice what it is: theft.  This theft is carried out with no remorse for the fact that the oil being stolen is a national resource, or any thought of the explosive danger caused by damage to pipelines.  Thousands of lives have been lost in pipeline fires caused by “tapping”.

SOCIETAL PRESSURE

Once an individual lands a government job, (s)he will be inundated with near irresistible requests for ‘assistance’, finance, contracts and material benefits from members of his or her society.  To resist such requests would be to risk being ostracised by their own kinfolk.  The community expects and encourages the selective and disproportionate distribution of the “benefits” of government finances to the relatives and community of the government official.

The African extended family and patronage system ensures that a government official finds it culturally difficult to resist.  If a government official condemns corruption and refuses to use government finances to enrich them self and their community, such an official would be denounced as foolish and would be derided for having nothing to show for their time in government.  Negative comparisons would be drawn with other officials who (corruptly) enriched themselves, and the official would be asked why he was still living in the same one house while his colleagues in government have acquired ostentatious status symbols of their time in government such as cars and expensive houses at home and abroad. The current generation of Nigerians do not desire governments or institutions which seek to inhibit their ability to illegally acquire wealth.

Nigerians have become accustomed to the culture of corruption around them, and are very quick to condemn and dispense with governments that push the elimination of corruption as a major policy platform.  The regime of Major-Generals Buhari and Idiagbon launched a severe and unprecedented anti-corruption campaign for over a year and a half between January 1984 and August 1985.  They tried and imprisoned politicians that embezzled state funds.  Before long, Nigerians were unhappy with the duo.  Disapproval of their anti-corruption campaign was not explicit, but was subtly cotton wooled into ostensibly academic and sober critiques of their “high handed” and “repressive” nature.  Nigerians celebrated when Buhari and Idiagbon were overthrown and replaced by a gap toothed armoured corps General from Minna named Ibrahim Babangida.

Babangida allowed Nigerians to see the ugly mirror reflection of their morality.  He recognized many Nigerians for what they are: commodities whose loyalty and soul is on sale to the highest bidder.  Many “pro democracy activists” denounced the corruption that took place under military rulers but were silenced by the financial “settlement” culture that was so pervasive under Generals Babangida and Abacha.

The current anti-corruption efforts of the EFCC and ICPC are derided for being “selective” and for not catching every corrupt individual.  These unsophisticated criticisms are the moral equivalent of a bank robber objecting to his arrest by the police on the grounds that other bank robbers whom the police have not arrested are still on the loose.  The author is of the opinion that most Nigerians should be grateful for this “selective” prosecution by the EFCC because if every corrupt Nigerian adult was arrested: (i) there would not be enough prisons and detention space to hold them, and (ii) a great deal of the workforce would be behind bars.  Nigeria has bred something far more sinister and sophisticated than petty graft and bribery.  The still unaccounted $12 billion dollar gulf war oil windfall, the Okigbo report that has never been acted upon and the absence of public outrage at these events is symbolic of the tacit acceptance of corrupt practices as “The Nigerian Way”.

Corruption in Nigeria is not just an offshoot of collapsed social and governmental institutions, nor is it the result of a hostile economic environment.  The roots go much deeper and are symptomatic of the gradual but residual breakdown of Nigerian societal values and morality.  It is the result of Nigerians’ failure to distinguish right from wrong, and of a nationwide refusal to condemn dishonesty.  Nigerians only condemn corruption when they are not the beneficiaries of it.

A WAY FORWARD?

Western nations have lower levels of corruption not only because their law enforcement authorities are more zealous.  The psyche of their citizens is different from that of the Nigerian.  The UK and New Zealand are two countries with the lowest levels of official corruption in the world.  The overwhelming majority of citizens in those countries reflexively obey the law as a matter of their nature and inner will.  They do not have to be coerced into obedience.  This is due to the attitudinal and societal rejection of corruption in these countries.

There is a moral consensus in these countries that corruption is degenerative for their society.What can be done for Nigeria?  I propose two approaches that might be a god start.  The first step is the elimination of the systemic procedure which inhibits measures aimed at eliminating corruption.   Section 308 of the Constitution should be amended (not deleted) so that the President, Vice-President, Governors and Deputy Governors should be immune from civil, but not criminal proceedings.

The semantic difference is that such officials would be immune from being sued in vexatious civil litigation (with apologies to Gani Fawehinmi) but would not be immune from investigation, arrest or imprisonment for the commission of crimes (including those involving corrupt practices and financial impropriety).  However such a constitutional amendment is unlikely to occur anytime in the near future.

The prerequisites for a constitutional amendment are formidable.  Constitutional amendments in Nigeria require a two-thirds majority approval vote in the federal Senate and House of Representatives, and further approval by two-thirds of the 36 State House of Assemblies in Nigeria.  To reach such a degree of consensus in a country as large and fractious as Nigeria would be near miraculous.  Other methods are required. Nigeria needs a moral revolution.  That moral revolution cannot be accomplished while the present generation remains.  Many members of the present generation have been so utterly corrupted that they are beyond redemption.  Nigeria cannot and will not progress until they expire.  Hope lies in the young and unborn who have not yet been tainted by the society around them.  By inculcating from a young age, the destructive social effects of corruption, a new more honest generation may emerge in future.  The teaching of values should be compulsorily incorporated into academic syllabi from primary school until the completion of university.  I will not deny that this sounds like a subtle form of indoctrination, but it might be the only way to save Nigeria from itself.  Corruption in Nigeria will be brought down to manageable levels only when a national consensus is reached that corruption is a corrosive impediment, and when it is rejected by the majority of the population.

https://twitter.com/maxsiollun

 

 

Discussion of Soldiers of Fortune – This Friday


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The Abuja Literary Society will discuss my book Soldiers of Fortune this Friday (February 17) at Salamander Cafe in Abuja. Contact @bagusmutendi or Cassava Republic on Twitter or Facebook for details.

41st Anniversary of Murtala Muhammed’s Assasination


Today is the 41st anniversary of the assassination of Nigeria’s former military head of state General Murtala Muhammed. He was assassinated on February 13, 1976, on his way to work during an abortive coup. Full details of Murtala’s life and the events that led to his death are in my book Oil, Politics and Violence: Nigeria’s Military Coup Culture.

Murtala’s car was ambushed by a group of soldiers in Lagos and he was shot to death. Above is a photo of the bullet riddled car in which he was killed. Note the bullet holes in the windscreen.

US State Department Report on Murtala Muhammed: https://maxsiollun.wordpress.com/2012/06/26/us-state-department-report-on-murtala-muhammed/

Murtala Muhammed’s speech on Nigerian democracy: https://www.facebook.com/157457414278806/videos/1851800698475/

The assassination of Murtala Muhammed:
https://maxsiollun.wordpress.com/2009/02/13/the-assasination-of-murtala-muhammed/

https://maxsiollun.wordpress.com/2014/02/13/february-13-1976-the-death-of-murtala-muhammed/

Brigadier Shehu Musa Yar’Adua Speaks to the press about Coup Plot: https://www.facebook.com/157457414278806/videos/1849886570623/

Lt-Colonel Dimka speaks to the press: https://www.facebook.com/157457414278806/videos/1851800698475/

Lt-General Obasanjo announces execution of coup convicts: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zjEA83pgstg&list=PLTCNM3JtW0UlisCGV98STnBtiGoS7YTaZ&index=3

Max Siollun (@maxsiollun) | Twitter